Temporal range: Middle Permian
|A restoration of Estemmenosuchus uralensis|
Estemmenosuchus is a omnivorous Therapsid from middle Permian Russia. Roughly 2–3 m in length, it was a herbivore. It had rounded, smoothly interlocking teeth with which it cropped the Permian vegetation, and a series of strange bumps and outcroppings on its head - the scientists believe that it used them in fights for females and territory. Estemmenosuchus was either a semi-aquatic animal like the modern hippopotamus, or fully terrestrial, like a rhinoceros.