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Anteosaurus had a tall, narrow skull, which is 80 centimetres (31 in) long. It was perhaps the largest known carnivorous non-mammalian synapsid, estimated at 5–6 m (16–20 ft) in length and 500 to 600 kg (1,100 to 1,300 lb) in weight.
The teeth are another identifying characteristic of Anteosaurus. The teeth on the roof of the mouth are enlarged and confined in a cluster near the outer tooth row. The "normal teeth" include the anterior, canine and cheek teeth. A prominent feature of the dinocephalians is the ledge on the anterior teeth. The canine teeth are big, and there are usually about ten cheek teeth present. The front of the mouth curves up due to the premaxillary bone of the upper jaw.
Anteosaurus is believed to have taken down prey by toppling them over with its thick skull, delivering a killing bite while the prey is still knocked over. It wasn't able to run particularly fast, but it's speed was likely enough for it to keep up with the slow herbivores it preyed upon. The hard, bony boss on its skull would have also been used for intraspecific combat. Like many therapsids, Anteosaurus may have been endothermic.